The Belgian shot-stopper produced a remarkable display to keep Liverpool at bay as the Spanish champions clinched a 1-0 win and with it their 14th European title.
And Courtois, who spent five years at Chelsea, admitted after the victory that he was inspired by criticism from those in England.
Speaking to BT Sport, he said: “Yesterday in the press conference I said that when Madrid plays finals they win. I was on the good side of history.
“I saw a lot of tweets coming my way that I would get humbled today it was the other way round.
“Today I needed to win a final for my career, for all the hard work to put respect on my name as I don’t think I get enough respect, especially in England. I saw a lot of criticism even after a great season.
“I am really proud of the team. We stuck to it and when I needed to be there I was there for the team. We beat some the best clubs of the world. City and Liverpool were unbelievable this season. They fought to the end in the Premier League, Liverpool won two cups and they were really strong.
“We played a great game today. We had one chance and scored it.”
Madrid’s triumph was Courtois’ first Champions League victory after he joined in 2018 following the club’s three European titles in a row.
Carlo Ancelotti’s men have already won the La Liga title this season, with their Champions League triumph making it a fifth European crown since 2014.